The People of the PLA 2.0

This volume examines how the structure, education, training, and recruitment of PLA personnel have changed in the last decade and in the Xi Jinping era. Structural changes in the PLA have centered around two poles: improving the warfighting readiness of the PLA and strengthening Communist Party of China (CPC) control of the PLA. Reforms to… Continue Reading The People of the PLA 2.0

Israel: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief

Israel has forged close bilateral cooperation with the United States in many areas. U.S. law requires the executive branch to take certain actions to preserve Israel’s “qualitative military edge,” or QME, and expedites aid and arms sales to Israel in various ways. Additionally, a 10- year bilateral military aid memorandum of understanding—signed in 2016—commits the… Continue Reading Israel: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief

Ethiopia’s Transition and the Tigray Conflict

The conflict in Ethiopia’s Tigray region has fueled a large-scale humanitarian crisis and attracted international concern, amid reports of starvation and atrocities. The war has taken a heavy human and economic toll, and it is spreading beyond Tigray. The Ethiopian government has resisted various calls for peace talks with Tigrayan insurgents, led by the Tigrayan… Continue Reading Ethiopia’s Transition and the Tigray Conflict

Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2021

This report lists hundreds of instances in which the United States has used its Armed Forces abroad in situations of military conflict or potential conflict or for other than normal peacetime purposes. It was compiled in part from various older lists and is intended primarily to provide a rough survey of past U.S. military ventures… Continue Reading Instances of Use of United States Armed Forces Abroad, 1798-2021

U.S. Foreign Assistance to the Middle East: Historical Background, Recent Trends, and the FY2022 Request

This report is an overview of U.S. foreign assistance to the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). It includes a brief historical review of foreign aid levels, a description of specific country programs, and analysis of current foreign aid issues. It also provides analysis of the Administration’s FY2022 budget request for State Department and U.S.… Continue Reading U.S. Foreign Assistance to the Middle East: Historical Background, Recent Trends, and the FY2022 Request

Low Earth Orbit Satellites: Potential to Address the Broadband Digital Divide

  As the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began to unfold, many federal, state, and local governments, in addition to large and small businesses, implemented remote working or distance learning options to help abate the spread of the virus. As these decisions were made, some of the population had the option and the capability to… Continue Reading Low Earth Orbit Satellites: Potential to Address the Broadband Digital Divide

Hypersonic Weapons

The United States has actively pursued the development of hypersonic weapons— maneuvering weapons that fly at speeds of at least Mach 5—as a part of its conventional prompt global strike program since the early 2000s. In recent years, the United States has focused such efforts on developing hypersonic glide vehicles, which are launched from a… Continue Reading Hypersonic Weapons

Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief

U.S. relations with Turkey take place within a complicated environment featuring several bilateral, regional, and Turkish domestic considerations. Current tensions have raised questions about the future of bilateral relations and have led to U.S. actions against Turkey, including sanctions and informal congressional holds on major new arms sales (such as upgrades to F-16 aircraft). Nevertheless,… Continue Reading Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), established in 1958, is an agency within the Department of Defense (DOD) responsible for catalyzing the development of technologies that maintain and advance the capabilities and technical superiority of the U.S. military. DARPA-funded research has made important science and technology contributions that have led to the development of… Continue Reading Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency