Russia’s Nuclear Weapons: Doctrine, Forces, and Modernization

Russia’s current modernization cycle for its nuclear forces began in the early 2000s and is likely to conclude in the 2020s. In addition, in March 2018, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced that Russia was developing new types of nuclear systems. While some see these weapons as a Russian attempt to achieve a measure of superiority… Continue Reading Russia’s Nuclear Weapons: Doctrine, Forces, and Modernization

Diverging Objectives: Maintaining Strategic Stability with Russia While Expanding Global Missile Defense

Many recent developments prompted me to look more deeply at Russia’s concerns related to US ballistic missile defense (BMD) and how it affects strategic stability. Russia is posing an increasing threat in multiple domains driven by its great power aspirations and revisionist desires. President Putin recently announced that Russia is developing a number of asymmetric… Continue Reading Diverging Objectives: Maintaining Strategic Stability with Russia While Expanding Global Missile Defense

Russia and Saudi Arabia: Old Disenchantments, New Challenges

The Joseph Biden administration can manage its recalibration of relations with Saudi Arabia without unwarranted fear that Riyadh will view Russia as a safe-harbor alternative to the United States on a myriad of state-to-state interactions that are most important to the Kingdom. While Russia’s transactional approach to foreign partners has at times given it advantages… Continue Reading Russia and Saudi Arabia: Old Disenchantments, New Challenges

Russia: Foreign Policy and U.S. Relations

Since Russian President Vladimir Putin’s rise to leadership more than 20 years ago, tensions have increased steadily between Russia and the United States. Most observers agree Russia’s natural resources and military modernization program, launched in 2008, provide Russia’s leadership the means to conduct a flexible and often aggressive foreign policy, as well as to project… Continue Reading Russia: Foreign Policy and U.S. Relations

Russia: Domestic Politics and Economy

Over the course of his 20 years of rule, Russian President Vladimir Putin has consolidated an authoritarian system of governance that has benefitted himself and a close group of colleagues and led Russia to take increasingly aggressive actions abroad. At the same time, Putin presided over Russia’s recovery from the economic collapse of the 1990s… Continue Reading Russia: Domestic Politics and Economy

Oil Market Effects from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Iran, Russia, Venezuela

  Economic sanctions imposed by the United States—through enacted legislation and executive action—on Iran, Russia, and Venezuela aim to pressure the ruling governments to change their behavior and policies. Currently, these sanctions aim to either eliminate (Iran) or restrict (Venezuela) crude oil trade of as much as 3.3 million to 4.0 million barrels per day… Continue Reading Oil Market Effects from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Iran, Russia, Venezuela

U.S. Sanctions on Russia

Sanctions are a central element of U.S. policy to counter and deter malign Russian behavior. The United States has imposed sanctions on Russia mainly in response to Russia’s 2014 invasion of Ukraine, to reverse and deter further Russian aggression in Ukraine, and to deter Russian aggression against other countries. The United States also has imposed… Continue Reading U.S. Sanctions on Russia

Russia’s Nuclear Weapons: Doctrine, Forces and Modernization

Russia’s nuclear forces consist of both long-range, strategic systems—including intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), and heavy bombers—and shorter- and medium-range delivery systems. Russia is modernizing its nuclear forces, replacing Soviet-era systems with new missiles, submarines and aircraft while developing new types of delivery systems. Although Russia’s number of nuclear weapons has declined… Continue Reading Russia’s Nuclear Weapons: Doctrine, Forces and Modernization

Turkey: Background, U.S. Relations, and Sanctions

Some specific Turkish actions have raised questions about Turkey’s commitment to NATO and overall strategic orientation. In 2019, Turkey’s incursion into northeastern Syria and acceptance of components for a Russian S-400 surface-to-air defense system have brought bilateral tensions to crisis levels, and contributed to Trump Administration sanctions on Turkey and the possibility of additional sanctions… Continue Reading Turkey: Background, U.S. Relations, and Sanctions

Artificial Intelligence, China, Russia, and the Global Order

A wide variety of perspectives on the different uses of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Russia and China and the impact this will have on the Global Order. Essays are from leading defense professionals, academics, think tanks, and policy developers. A comprehensive primer for those concerned with how emerging technologies will influence the west’s near-peer competitors.… Continue Reading Artificial Intelligence, China, Russia, and the Global Order