Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

Recent debates about U.S. nuclear weapons have questioned what role weapons with shorter ranges and lower yields can play in addressing emerging threats in Europe and Asia. These weapons, often referred to as nonstrategic nuclear weapons, have not been limited by past U.S.-Russian arms control agreements. Some analysts argue such limits would be of value,… Continue Reading Nonstrategic Nuclear Weapons

EU Digital Policy and International Trade

A “Europe fit for the digital age” is a top European Union (EU) priority and a key part of EU economic recovery efforts from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Under the European Commission’s digital policy roadmap, “Shaping Europe’s Digital Future,” the EU aims to strengthen the EU economy and improve the region’s digital competitiveness,… Continue Reading EU Digital Policy and International Trade

Afghanistan: Background and U.S. Policy

  In light of the approaching withdrawal deadline and the stalling of intra-Afghan talks, the United States appears to have intensified its efforts to broker an intra-Afghan agreement. Secretary of State Antony Blinken reportedly wrote to Afghan government officials in March 2021 to express “urgency” that they form a united front and participate in planned… Continue Reading Afghanistan: Background and U.S. Policy

Brexit: Overview, Trade, and Northern Ireland

  The United Kingdom (UK) withdrew from the European Union (EU) on January 31, 2020. Under the withdrawal agreement negotiated by the two sides, the UK continued to apply EU rules during a transition period lasting to the end of 2020. In December 2020, UK and EU negotiators concluded a Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA)… Continue Reading Brexit: Overview, Trade, and Northern Ireland

Joint All-Domain Command and Control

The Department of Defense (DOD) is in the process of a once-in-a-generation modernization of its approach to commanding military forces. Senior DOD leaders have stated that the department’s existing command and control architecture is insufficient to meet the demands of the 2018 National Defense Strategy (NDS). Joint All-Domain Command and Control (JADC2) is DOD’s concept… Continue Reading Joint All-Domain Command and Control

U.S. Energy in the 21st Century: A Primer

Since the start of the 21st century, the U.S. energy system has changed tremendously. Technological advances in energy production have driven changes in energy consumption, and the United States has moved from being a net importer of most forms of energy to a declining importer—and a net exporter in 2019. The United States remains the… Continue Reading U.S. Energy in the 21st Century: A Primer

U.S. Army Long-Range Precision Fires

the U.S. Army is seeking to improve its ability to deliver what it refers to as long-range precision fires (LRPF) by upgrading current artillery and missile systems, developing new longer-range cannons and hypersonic weapons, and modifying existing air- and sea-launched missiles and cruise missiles for ground launch by Army units. Both the 2018 National Defense… Continue Reading U.S. Army Long-Range Precision Fires

Antarctica: Overview of Geopolitical and Environmental Issues

Geopolitical and environmental developments are increasing international focus on Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Stakeholders contend these developments may have political, economic, and security implications for the United States and the rest of the world. Geopolitical concerns center on the rising presence of China and Russia in the Antarctic and the integrity of the Antarctic… Continue Reading Antarctica: Overview of Geopolitical and Environmental Issues

Northern Ireland: The Peace Process, Ongoing Challenges, and U.S. Interests

Between 1969 and 1999, roughly 3,500 people died as a result of political violence in Northern Ireland, which is one of four component “nations” of the United Kingdom(UK). The conflict, often referred to as “the Troubles,” has its origins in the 1921 division of Ireland and has reflected a struggle between different national, cultural, and… Continue Reading Northern Ireland: The Peace Process, Ongoing Challenges, and U.S. Interests

Defending Air Bases in an Age of Insurgency: Volume III: Integrated Base Defense Principles for Commanders

  This third and final volume in the Air University Press monograph series Defending Air Bases in an Age of Insurgency provides concise principles designed to assist Air Force and Space Force commanders in better understanding their role in base defense to better protect their people, resources, and war-fighting assets. Volume I of this book… Continue Reading Defending Air Bases in an Age of Insurgency: Volume III: Integrated Base Defense Principles for Commanders