Northern Ireland: The Peace Process, Ongoing Challenges, and U.S. Interests

Between 1969 and 1999, roughly 3,500 people died as a result of political violence in Northern Ireland, which is one of four component “nations” of the United Kingdom(UK). The conflict, often referred to as “the Troubles,” has its origins in the 1921 division of Ireland and has reflected a struggle between different national, cultural, and… Continue Reading Northern Ireland: The Peace Process, Ongoing Challenges, and U.S. Interests

Defending Air Bases in an Age of Insurgency: Volume III: Integrated Base Defense Principles for Commanders

  This third and final volume in the Air University Press monograph series Defending Air Bases in an Age of Insurgency provides concise principles designed to assist Air Force and Space Force commanders in better understanding their role in base defense to better protect their people, resources, and war-fighting assets. Volume I of this book… Continue Reading Defending Air Bases in an Age of Insurgency: Volume III: Integrated Base Defense Principles for Commanders

Overview of Department of Defense Use of the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Communication using the electromagnetic spectrum (“the spectrum”) enables a number of modern military capabilities. The Department of Defense (DOD) uses electromagnetic radiation to enable military communications, navigation, radar, nonintrusive inspection of aircraft, and other equipment. DOD also heavily relies on electromagnetic radiation for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) applications such as missile early warning and… Continue Reading Overview of Department of Defense Use of the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Canada-U.S. Relations

The United States and Canada typically enjoy close relations. The two countries are bound together by a common 5,525-mile border—“the longest undefended border in the world”—as well as by shared history and values. They have extensive trade and investment ties and longstanding mutual security commitments under NATO and North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD). Canada… Continue Reading Canada-U.S. Relations

U.S. Agent Orange/Dioxin Assistance to Vietnam

U.S. assistance to Vietnam for the environmental and health damage attributed to a dioxin contained in Agent Orange and other herbicides sprayed over much of the southern portion of the country during the Vietnam War remains a significant bilateral issue. Between fiscal years (FY) 2007 and 2021, Congress appropriated nearly $390 million to address these… Continue Reading U.S. Agent Orange/Dioxin Assistance to Vietnam

Transportation Security

The nation’s air, land, and marine transportation systems are designed for accessibility and efficiency, two characteristics that make them vulnerable to terrorist attack. While hardening the transportation sector is difficult, measures can be taken to deter terrorists. The enduring challenge facing Congress is how best to implement and finance a system of deterrence, protection, and… Continue Reading Transportation Security

U.S. Trade Policy Primer: Frequently Asked Questions

Congress plays a major role in U.S. trade policy through its legislative and oversight authority. Since the end of World War II, U.S. trade policy has focused on fostering an open, rules-based global trading system, liberalizing markets by reducing trade and investment barriers through negotiations and agreements, and enforcing trade commitments and related laws. Internationaltrade… Continue Reading U.S. Trade Policy Primer: Frequently Asked Questions

Sub-Saharan Africa: Key Issues and U.S. Engagement

The 117th Congress may review U.S. engagement in sub-Saharan Africa (“Africa”) as it establishes budgetary and policy priorities and responds to developments in the region. Issues for Congress include the authorization and appropriation of funding for U.S. foreign aid programs and U.S. military activities in the region, and oversight of U.S. programs and policies. Major… Continue Reading Sub-Saharan Africa: Key Issues and U.S. Engagement

Future of Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Update

In 2014, John P. Caves, Jr., and W. Seth Carus of the Center for the Study of Weapons of Mass Destruction at National Defense University published a paper on the future of weapons of mass destruction (WMD).[i] That paper projected WMD-relevant geopolitical and technological trends and made judgments as to how those trends would shape… Continue Reading Future of Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Update

Army Training, Sir: The Impact of the World War I Experience on the Evolution of Training Doctrine in the US Army

The American Army’s mobilization for World War I was fraught with difficulties, resulting in a number of failings that produced a capable but flawed expeditionary force. The traditional interpretation of army training during that conflict was lackluster as it produced combat units that lacked critical capabilities. The experience of learning how to train and how… Continue Reading Army Training, Sir: The Impact of the World War I Experience on the Evolution of Training Doctrine in the US Army