Israel: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief

Israel has forged close bilateral cooperation with the United States in many areas. U.S. law requires the executive branch to take certain actions to preserve Israel’s “qualitative military edge,” or QME, and expedites aid and arms sales to Israel in various ways. Additionally, a 10- year bilateral military aid memorandum of understanding—signed in 2016—commits the… Continue Reading Israel: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief

U.S. Foreign Assistance to the Middle East: Historical Background, Recent Trends, and the FY2022 Request

This report is an overview of U.S. foreign assistance to the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). It includes a brief historical review of foreign aid levels, a description of specific country programs, and analysis of current foreign aid issues. It also provides analysis of the Administration’s FY2022 budget request for State Department and U.S.… Continue Reading U.S. Foreign Assistance to the Middle East: Historical Background, Recent Trends, and the FY2022 Request

Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief

U.S. relations with Turkey take place within a complicated environment featuring several bilateral, regional, and Turkish domestic considerations. Current tensions have raised questions about the future of bilateral relations and have led to U.S. actions against Turkey, including sanctions and informal congressional holds on major new arms sales (such as upgrades to F-16 aircraft). Nevertheless,… Continue Reading Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations in Brief

Iran’s Nuclear Program: Tehran’s Compliance with International Obligations

Iran and the IAEA agreed in August 2007 on a work plan to clarify outstanding questions regarding Tehran’s nuclear program. The IAEA had essentially resolved most of these issues, but for several years the agency still had questions concerning “possible military dimensions to Iran’s nuclear programme.” A December 2, 2015, report to the IAEA Board… Continue Reading Iran’s Nuclear Program: Tehran’s Compliance with International Obligations

Russia and Saudi Arabia: Old Disenchantments, New Challenges

The Joseph Biden administration can manage its recalibration of relations with Saudi Arabia without unwarranted fear that Riyadh will view Russia as a safe-harbor alternative to the United States on a myriad of state-to-state interactions that are most important to the Kingdom. While Russia’s transactional approach to foreign partners has at times given it advantages… Continue Reading Russia and Saudi Arabia: Old Disenchantments, New Challenges

Israel: New Prime Minister and U.S. Relations

New prime minister and an end to Netanyahu’s rule. A group of disparate parties from across the political spectrum agreed in June 2021 to form a power-sharing government to replace long serving Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu, who is being tried in an Israeli court on corruption charges. On June 13, the Knesset (Israel’s unicameral parliament)… Continue Reading Israel: New Prime Minister and U.S. Relations

Iran in Latin America: Malign Alliances, “Super Spreaders,” and Alternative Narratives

Iran’s ability to shape the information environment and spread the narrative of the United States as an imperialist force—perpetrating violence and instability in Latin America—has grown in recent years. These ongoing and multifaceted campaigns of disinformation and carefully curated messages are coordinated with Russian and Venezuelan state media companies and thousands of allied Internet and… Continue Reading Iran in Latin America: Malign Alliances, “Super Spreaders,” and Alternative Narratives

Iran’s Nuclear Program: Tehran’s Compliance with International Obligations

Several U.N. Security Council resolutions adopted between 2006 and 2010 required Iran to cooperate fully with the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA’s) investigation of its nuclear activities, suspend its uranium enrichment program, suspend its construction of a heavy-water reactor and related projects, and ratify the Additional Protocol to its IAEA safeguards agreement. Iran did not… Continue Reading Iran’s Nuclear Program: Tehran’s Compliance with International Obligations

Congress and the Middle East, 2011-2020: Selected Case Studies

Congress shaped U.S. national security policy toward several critical crises and contingencies in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) during the decade from 2011 through 2020—a period of upheaval, conflict, and change in that region. This volume presents several case studies. See Table of Contents.    

Israel: May 2021 Violence and U.S. Relations

The following matters are of particular significance to U.S.-Israel relations, and are discussed here. * Violence and unrest over Gaza and Jerusalem. * Domestic issues: An end to or continuation of Netanyahu’s rule? * Palestinians and Arab state normalization * Iran and other regional issues. * China: Investments in Israel and U.S. concerns. Learn more… Continue Reading Israel: May 2021 Violence and U.S. Relations