Oil Market Effects from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Iran, Russia, Venezuela

  Economic sanctions imposed by the United States—through enacted legislation and executive action—on Iran, Russia, and Venezuela aim to pressure the ruling governments to change their behavior and policies. Currently, these sanctions aim to either eliminate (Iran) or restrict (Venezuela) crude oil trade of as much as 3.3 million to 4.0 million barrels per day… Continue Reading Oil Market Effects from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Iran, Russia, Venezuela

Nonstate Actors and Anti-Access/Area Denial Strategies: The Coming Challenge

This monograph explores the emerging challenge of nonstate actors’ anti-access and area denial (A2/AD) strategies and their implications for the United States and its allies by looking at two regions, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, with case studies such as Hezbollah in Lebanon, Hamas in the Gaza Strip, the Houthis in Yemen, and separatist… Continue Reading Nonstate Actors and Anti-Access/Area Denial Strategies: The Coming Challenge

U.S.-China Strategic Competition in South and East China Seas

In an international security environment described as one of renewed great power competition, the South China Sea (SCS) has emerged as an arena of U.S.-China strategic competition. U.S.-China strategic competition in the SCS forms an element of the Trump Administration’s more confrontational overall approach toward China, and of the Administration’s efforts for promoting its construct… Continue Reading U.S.-China Strategic Competition in South and East China Seas

U.S. Sanctions on Russia

Sanctions are a central element of U.S. policy to counter and deter malign Russian behavior. The United States has imposed sanctions on Russia mainly in response to Russia’s 2014 invasion of Ukraine, to reverse and deter further Russian aggression in Ukraine, and to deter Russian aggression against other countries. The United States also has imposed… Continue Reading U.S. Sanctions on Russia

U.S. Killing of Qasem Soleimani: Frequently Asked Questions

The January 2, 2020, U.S. killing in Iraq of Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps-Qods Force (IRGC-QF) Commander Qasem Soleimani, generally regarded as one of the most powerful and important officials in Iran, has potentially dramatic implications for the United States. For Congress, it raises possible questions about U.S. policy in the Middle East, broader U.S. global… Continue Reading U.S. Killing of Qasem Soleimani: Frequently Asked Questions

Turkey and the United States on the Brink: Implications for NATO and the US-Turkish Strategic and Military Partnership

This monograph analyzes the current political tensions between the United States and Turkey and suggests ways to manage them. The two countries have been strategic allies since at least the end of World War II—Turkey became a North Atlantic Treaty Organization member and participated with its military forces in the Korea War, and during the… Continue Reading Turkey and the United States on the Brink: Implications for NATO and the US-Turkish Strategic and Military Partnership

U.S.-Iran Conflict and Implications for U.S. Policy

Since May 2019, U.S.-Iran tensions have heightened significantly, especially since U.S. military forces killed Qasem Soleimani, the commander of the Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps Quds Force (IRGC-QF) and one of Iran’s most important military commanders, in a U.S. airstrike in Baghdad on January 2, 2020. The U.S.-Iran tensions have the potential to escalate into… Continue Reading U.S.-Iran Conflict and Implications for U.S. Policy

Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: Background and U.S.-Baltic Relations

Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, often referred to as the Baltic states, are close U.S. allies and considered among the most pro-U.S. countries in Europe. Strong U.S. relations with these three states are rooted in history. The United States never recognized the Soviet Union’s forcible incorporation of the Baltic states in 1940, and it applauded the… Continue Reading Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: Background and U.S.-Baltic Relations

U.N. Peacekeeping Operations in Africa

As of September 2019, there are seven U.N. peacekeeping operations in Africa: *the U.N. Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA), * the U.N. Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA), * the U.N. Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA), * the U.N. Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS), * the U.N. Organization… Continue Reading U.N. Peacekeeping Operations in Africa