China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities

In an era of renewed great power competition, China’s military modernization effort, including its naval modernization effort, has become the top focus of U.S. defense planning and budgeting. China’s navy has become a formidable military force within China’s near-seas region, and it is conducting a growing number of operations in more-distant waters, including the broader… Continue Reading China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities

Renewed Great Power Competition: Implications for Defense

This report provides a brief overview of implications for U.S. defense of the shift in the international environment to a situation of renewed great power competition with China and Russia. The issue for Congress is how U.S. defense planning should respond to this shift, and whether to approve, reject, or modify the Trump Administration’s proposed… Continue Reading Renewed Great Power Competition: Implications for Defense

Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements – March 2020 Edition

Arms control and nonproliferation efforts are two of the tools that the United States has occasionally used to implement its national security strategy. Although some believe these tools do little to restrain the behavior of U.S. adversaries, while doing too much to restrain U.S. military forces and operations, many others see them as an effective… Continue Reading Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Catalog of Treaties and Agreements – March 2020 Edition

Oil Market Effects from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Iran, Russia, Venezuela

  Economic sanctions imposed by the United States—through enacted legislation and executive action—on Iran, Russia, and Venezuela aim to pressure the ruling governments to change their behavior and policies. Currently, these sanctions aim to either eliminate (Iran) or restrict (Venezuela) crude oil trade of as much as 3.3 million to 4.0 million barrels per day… Continue Reading Oil Market Effects from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Iran, Russia, Venezuela

Nonstate Actors and Anti-Access/Area Denial Strategies: The Coming Challenge

This monograph explores the emerging challenge of nonstate actors’ anti-access and area denial (A2/AD) strategies and their implications for the United States and its allies by looking at two regions, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, with case studies such as Hezbollah in Lebanon, Hamas in the Gaza Strip, the Houthis in Yemen, and separatist… Continue Reading Nonstate Actors and Anti-Access/Area Denial Strategies: The Coming Challenge

U.S.-China Strategic Competition in South and East China Seas

In an international security environment described as one of renewed great power competition, the South China Sea (SCS) has emerged as an arena of U.S.-China strategic competition. U.S.-China strategic competition in the SCS forms an element of the Trump Administration’s more confrontational overall approach toward China, and of the Administration’s efforts for promoting its construct… Continue Reading U.S.-China Strategic Competition in South and East China Seas

U.S. Sanctions on Russia

Sanctions are a central element of U.S. policy to counter and deter malign Russian behavior. The United States has imposed sanctions on Russia mainly in response to Russia’s 2014 invasion of Ukraine, to reverse and deter further Russian aggression in Ukraine, and to deter Russian aggression against other countries. The United States also has imposed… Continue Reading U.S. Sanctions on Russia

U.S. Killing of Qasem Soleimani: Frequently Asked Questions

The January 2, 2020, U.S. killing in Iraq of Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps-Qods Force (IRGC-QF) Commander Qasem Soleimani, generally regarded as one of the most powerful and important officials in Iran, has potentially dramatic implications for the United States. For Congress, it raises possible questions about U.S. policy in the Middle East, broader U.S. global… Continue Reading U.S. Killing of Qasem Soleimani: Frequently Asked Questions

Turkey and the United States on the Brink: Implications for NATO and the US-Turkish Strategic and Military Partnership

This monograph analyzes the current political tensions between the United States and Turkey and suggests ways to manage them. The two countries have been strategic allies since at least the end of World War II—Turkey became a North Atlantic Treaty Organization member and participated with its military forces in the Korea War, and during the… Continue Reading Turkey and the United States on the Brink: Implications for NATO and the US-Turkish Strategic and Military Partnership