Changes in the Arctic

The diminishment of Arctic sea ice has led to increased human activities in the Arctic, and has heightened interest in, and concerns about, the region’s future. The United States, by virtue of Alaska, is an Arctic country and has substantial interests in the region. The seven other Arctic states are Canada, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland,… Continue Reading Changes in the Arctic

EU Agricultural Domestic Support: Overview and Comparison with the United States

The European Union (EU) is one of the United States’ chief agricultural trading partners and a major competitor in world markets. Historically, the United States and the EU have provided significant government support for their agricultural sectors. Significant structural differences in their respective farm sectors have helped to shape differences in their farm policy. The… Continue Reading EU Agricultural Domestic Support: Overview and Comparison with the United States

EU Digital Policy and International Trade

A “Europe fit for the digital age” is a top European Union (EU) priority and a key part of EU economic recovery efforts from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Under the European Commission’s digital policy roadmap, “Shaping Europe’s Digital Future,” the EU aims to strengthen the EU economy and improve the region’s digital competitiveness,… Continue Reading EU Digital Policy and International Trade

Brexit: Overview, Trade, and Northern Ireland

  The United Kingdom (UK) withdrew from the European Union (EU) on January 31, 2020. Under the withdrawal agreement negotiated by the two sides, the UK continued to apply EU rules during a transition period lasting to the end of 2020. In December 2020, UK and EU negotiators concluded a Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA)… Continue Reading Brexit: Overview, Trade, and Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland: The Peace Process, Ongoing Challenges, and U.S. Interests

Between 1969 and 1999, roughly 3,500 people died as a result of political violence in Northern Ireland, which is one of four component “nations” of the United Kingdom(UK). The conflict, often referred to as “the Troubles,” has its origins in the 1921 division of Ireland and has reflected a struggle between different national, cultural, and… Continue Reading Northern Ireland: The Peace Process, Ongoing Challenges, and U.S. Interests

European Union: Questions and Answers

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic partnership that represents a unique form of cooperation among sovereign countries. The EU is the latest stage in a process of integration begun after World War II, initially by six Western European countries, to foster interdependence and make another war in Europe unthinkable. The EU currently… Continue Reading European Union: Questions and Answers

Striking the Balance: US Army Force Posture in Europe, 2028

Within the context of Europe, the US Army must develop a force posture that best navigates the tensions between deterring or defeating armed conflict at an acceptable cost, successfully competing below armed conflict, and maintaining global responsiveness and institutional flexibility through the global operating model and dynamic force employment. While Russia’s economy, and consequently military… Continue Reading Striking the Balance: US Army Force Posture in Europe, 2028

Brexit: Status and Outlook

The United Kingdom (UK) formally withdrew from membership in the European Union (EU) on January 31, 2020. Under the withdrawal agreement negotiated by the two sides, the UK is to continue applying EU rules during a transition period scheduled to run through the end of 2020. During the transition period, the UK and the EU… Continue Reading Brexit: Status and Outlook

Nonstate Actors and Anti-Access/Area Denial Strategies: The Coming Challenge

This monograph explores the emerging challenge of nonstate actors’ anti-access and area denial (A2/AD) strategies and their implications for the United States and its allies by looking at two regions, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, with case studies such as Hezbollah in Lebanon, Hamas in the Gaza Strip, the Houthis in Yemen, and separatist… Continue Reading Nonstate Actors and Anti-Access/Area Denial Strategies: The Coming Challenge

Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: Background and U.S.-Baltic Relations

Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, often referred to as the Baltic states, are close U.S. allies and considered among the most pro-U.S. countries in Europe. Strong U.S. relations with these three states are rooted in history. The United States never recognized the Soviet Union’s forcible incorporation of the Baltic states in 1940, and it applauded the… Continue Reading Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: Background and U.S.-Baltic Relations