U.S. Foreign Assistance to the Middle East: Historical Background, Recent Trends, and the FY2022 Request

This report is an overview of U.S. foreign assistance to the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). It includes a brief historical review of foreign aid levels, a description of specific country programs, and analysis of current foreign aid issues. It also provides analysis of the Administration’s FY2022 budget request for State Department and U.S.… Continue Reading U.S. Foreign Assistance to the Middle East: Historical Background, Recent Trends, and the FY2022 Request

The Bioeconomy: A Primer

  The term bioeconomy refers to the share of the economy based on products, services, and processes derived from biological resources (e.g., plants and microorganisms). The bioeconomy is crosscutting, encompassing multiple sectors, in whole or in part (e.g., agriculture, textiles, chemicals, and energy). Many predict that the bioeconomy will be a key component of the… Continue Reading The Bioeconomy: A Primer

EU Agricultural Domestic Support: Overview and Comparison with the United States

The European Union (EU) is one of the United States’ chief agricultural trading partners and a major competitor in world markets. Historically, the United States and the EU have provided significant government support for their agricultural sectors. Significant structural differences in their respective farm sectors have helped to shape differences in their farm policy. The… Continue Reading EU Agricultural Domestic Support: Overview and Comparison with the United States

EU Digital Policy and International Trade

A “Europe fit for the digital age” is a top European Union (EU) priority and a key part of EU economic recovery efforts from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Under the European Commission’s digital policy roadmap, “Shaping Europe’s Digital Future,” the EU aims to strengthen the EU economy and improve the region’s digital competitiveness,… Continue Reading EU Digital Policy and International Trade

Brexit: Overview, Trade, and Northern Ireland

  The United Kingdom (UK) withdrew from the European Union (EU) on January 31, 2020. Under the withdrawal agreement negotiated by the two sides, the UK continued to apply EU rules during a transition period lasting to the end of 2020. In December 2020, UK and EU negotiators concluded a Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA)… Continue Reading Brexit: Overview, Trade, and Northern Ireland

Canada-U.S. Relations

The United States and Canada typically enjoy close relations. The two countries are bound together by a common 5,525-mile border—“the longest undefended border in the world”—as well as by shared history and values. They have extensive trade and investment ties and longstanding mutual security commitments under NATO and North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD). Canada… Continue Reading Canada-U.S. Relations

U.S. Trade Policy Primer: Frequently Asked Questions

Congress plays a major role in U.S. trade policy through its legislative and oversight authority. Since the end of World War II, U.S. trade policy has focused on fostering an open, rules-based global trading system, liberalizing markets by reducing trade and investment barriers through negotiations and agreements, and enforcing trade commitments and related laws. Internationaltrade… Continue Reading U.S. Trade Policy Primer: Frequently Asked Questions

Trade Remedies: Antidumping

The U.S. Constitution grants to Congress the power to regulate trade with foreign nations and levy tariffs. Since 1922, U.S. law and foreign policy have favored applying tariffs and duties equally to all trading partners. This principle, known as most-favored-nation (MFN) treatment, has been central to the rules-based global trading system since 1947. One of… Continue Reading Trade Remedies: Antidumping

National Emergency Powers

The President of the United States has available certain powers that may be exercised in the event that the nation is threatened by crisis, exigency, or emergency circumstances (other than natural disasters, war, or near-war situations). Such powers may be stated explicitly or implied by the Constitution, assumed by the Chief Executive to be permissible… Continue Reading National Emergency Powers

Defense Production Act of 1950: History and Authorities

The Defense Production Act (DPA) of 1950 (P.L. 81-774, 50 U.S.C. §§4501 et seq.), as amended, confers upon the President a broad set of authorities to influence domestic industry in the interest of national defense. The authorities can be used across the federal government to shape the domestic industrial base so that, when called upon,… Continue Reading Defense Production Act of 1950: History and Authorities