China’s Military: The People’s Liberation Army (PLA)

China presents its military posture as purely defensive, serving only to protect China’s legitimate sovereign interests. It calls its national military strategy “active defense,” a concept that prescribes the ways in which China can defend its interests and prevail over a militarily superior adversary. This strategy allows for the use of offensive operational and tactical… Continue Reading China’s Military: The People’s Liberation Army (PLA)

Nuclear Negotiations with North Korea

Since the late 1980s, when U.S. officials became aware that North Korea was actively pursuing nuclear weapons capabilities, U.S. administrations have used a combination of pressure, deterrence, and diplomacy to try to reduce the threat posed by a nuclear-armed North Korea. The need for an effective North Korea strategy has become more pressing over the… Continue Reading Nuclear Negotiations with North Korea

Japan-U.S. Relations

  Japan is a significant partner of the United States in a number of foreign policy areas, including addressing regional security concerns, which range from hedging against Chinese military modernization to countering threats from North Korea. The U.S.-Japan military alliance, formed in 1952, grants the U.S. military the right to base U.S. troops—currently around 54,000… Continue Reading Japan-U.S. Relations

U.S. Agent Orange/Dioxin Assistance to Vietnam

U.S. assistance to Vietnam for the environmental and health damage attributed to a dioxin contained in Agent Orange and other herbicides sprayed over much of the southern portion of the country during the Vietnam War remains a significant bilateral issue. Between fiscal years (FY) 2007 and 2021, Congress appropriated nearly $390 million to address these… Continue Reading U.S. Agent Orange/Dioxin Assistance to Vietnam

Australia’s Strategic Posture

      Australia is responding to increased uncertainty in its strategic environment by developing a new strategic posture that will likely allow it greater flexibility to act independently. In new strategic documents, Australia has outlined plans to increase its defense spending, acquire key combat systems, and further develop strategic and defense ties and bilateral… Continue Reading Australia’s Strategic Posture

Australia’s Strategic Posture: Issues for Congress

Australia is responding to increased uncertainty in its strategic environment by developing a new strategic posture that will likely allow it greater flexibility to act independently. In new strategic documents, Australia has outlined plans to increase its defense spending, acquire key combat systems, and further develop strategic and defense ties and bilateral relations with Japan,… Continue Reading Australia’s Strategic Posture: Issues for Congress

U.S.-China Strategic Competition in South and East China Seas

In an international security environment described as one of renewed great power competition, the South China Sea (SCS) has emerged as an arena of U.S.-China strategic competition. U.S.-China strategic competition in the SCS forms an element of the Trump Administration’s more confrontational overall approach toward China, and of the Administration’s efforts for promoting its construct… Continue Reading U.S.-China Strategic Competition in South and East China Seas

System Overload: Can China’s Military Be Distracted in a War over Taiwan?

A war with Taiwan remains the primary contingency of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA). While the near-term prospects of China initiating a war are low due to the enormous economic costs and military risks, the PLA must still prepare to compel Taiwan’s leaders to accept unification or, barring that, to seize and occupy the island.… Continue Reading System Overload: Can China’s Military Be Distracted in a War over Taiwan?

How China Wins: A Case Study of the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War

This Art of War Paper examines whether or not China won a strategic victory in its invasion of Vietnam in 1979, and what relevance that victory may have on today’s study of Chinese strategy and military thought. Other studies have focused on the regional issues that led China and Vietnam to war in February 1979.… Continue Reading How China Wins: A Case Study of the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War

China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities

In an era of renewed great power competition, China’s military modernization effort, including its naval modernization effort, has become the top focus of U.S. defense planning and budgeting. China’s navy has become a formidable military force within China’s near-seas region, and it is conducting a growing number of operations in more-distant waters, including the broader… Continue Reading China Naval Modernization: Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities