Turkey and the United States on the Brink: Implications for NATO and the US-Turkish Strategic and Military Partnership

This monograph analyzes the current political tensions between the United States and Turkey and suggests ways to manage them. The two countries have been strategic allies since at least the end of World War II—Turkey became a North Atlantic Treaty Organization member and participated with its military forces in the Korea War, and during the… Continue Reading Turkey and the United States on the Brink: Implications for NATO and the US-Turkish Strategic and Military Partnership

Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: Background and U.S.-Baltic Relations

Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, often referred to as the Baltic states, are close U.S. allies and considered among the most pro-U.S. countries in Europe. Strong U.S. relations with these three states are rooted in history. The United States never recognized the Soviet Union’s forcible incorporation of the Baltic states in 1940, and it applauded the… Continue Reading Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: Background and U.S.-Baltic Relations

Republic of Georgia

  Georgia is one of the United States’ closest partners among the states that gained their independence after the USSR collapsed in 1991. With a history of strong economic aid and security cooperation, the United States has deepened its strategic partnership with Georgia since Russia’s 2008 invasion of Georgia and 2014 invasion of Ukraine. U.S.… Continue Reading Republic of Georgia

Jakarta Knows Best: US Defense Policies and Security Cooperation in 1950s Indonesia

This volume explores U.S. defense policies and security cooperation activities and agreements between the United States and Indonesia from 1950 to 1959, the first decade of Indonesia’s independence. It assesses the implementation and value of U.S. military assistance and training programs and the way defense policies influenced and contributed to both the development of the… Continue Reading Jakarta Knows Best: US Defense Policies and Security Cooperation in 1950s Indonesia

U.S.-China Relations

The United States and the People’s Republic of China (PRC or China) are involved in a prolonged stand-off over trade and in competition that is spilling from political and military areas into a growing number of other spheres, including technology, finance, and education, severely straining ties on the 40th anniversary of the two countries’ establishment… Continue Reading U.S.-China Relations

U.S.-China Strategic Competition in South and East China Seas: Background and Issues for Congress

In an international security environment described as one of renewed great power competition, the South China Sea (SCS) has emerged as an arena of U.S.-China strategic competition. U.S.China strategic competition in the SCS forms an element of the Trump Administration’s more confrontational overall approach toward China, and of the Administration’s efforts for promoting its construct… Continue Reading U.S.-China Strategic Competition in South and East China Seas: Background and Issues for Congress

Iran: Internal Politics and U.S. Policy and Options

U.S.-Iran relations have been mostly adversarial—but with varying degrees of intensity—since the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran. U.S. officials have consistently identified Iran’s support for militant Middle East groups as a significant threat to U.S. interests and allies, and Iran’s nuclear program took precedence in U.S. policy after 2002 as that program advanced. In 2010,… Continue Reading Iran: Internal Politics and U.S. Policy and Options

Bahrain: Unrest, Security, and U.S. Policy

  A 2011 uprising by a mostly Shia opposition to the Sunni-minority-led regime of Bahrain’s Al Khalifa ruling family has subsided, but punishments of oppositionists and periodic demonstrations continue. The uprising did not achieve its goal of establishing a constitutional monarchy, but the unrest has compelled the ruling family to undertake some modest reforms. Elections… Continue Reading Bahrain: Unrest, Security, and U.S. Policy

US Foreign Aid to Israel

This report provides an overview of U.S. foreign assistance to Israel. It includes a review of past aid programs, data on annual assistance, and analysis of current issues. Israel is the largest cumulative recipient of U.S. foreign assistance since World War II. To date, the United States has provided Israel $142.3 billion (current, or noninflation-adjusted,… Continue Reading US Foreign Aid to Israel

U.S.-Iran Tensions and Implications for U.S. Policy

  In the spring of 2019, U.S.-Iran tensions have escalated. The Trump Administration, following its 2018 withdrawal from the 2015 multilateral nuclear agreement with Iran (Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, JCPOA), has taken several steps in its campaign of applying “maximum pressure” on Iran. Iran or Iran-linked forces have targeted commercial ships and infrastructure in… Continue Reading U.S.-Iran Tensions and Implications for U.S. Policy