U.S. Sanctions on Russia

Sanctions are considered by many to be a central element of U.S. policy to counter Russian malign behavior. Most Russia-related sanctions have been in response to Russia’s 2014 invasion of Ukraine. In addition, the United States has imposed sanctions on Russia in response to human rights abuses, election interference and cyberattacks, weapons proliferation, illicit trade… Continue Reading U.S. Sanctions on Russia

Assessing the Collective Security Treaty Organization: Capabilities and Vulnerabilities

Russia has strengthened its military position in Central Asia and the South Caucasus through a combination of bilateral and multilateral initiatives. The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) has become the most important multilateral defense structure in the former Soviet Union and is an essential instrument in Russia’s resurgence. The CSTO has expanded its missions, authorities,… Continue Reading Assessing the Collective Security Treaty Organization: Capabilities and Vulnerabilities

New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions

The United States and Russia signed the New START Treaty on April 8, 2010. Following ratification by the American and Russian legislatures, it entered into force on February 5, 2011, after Secretary of State Clinton and Foreign Minister Lavrov exchanged the instruments of ratification. Reductions were to be implemented by February 5, 2018, a goal… Continue Reading New START Treaty: Central Limits and Key Provisions

Russian Compliance with the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty

Russian deployment of the 9M729 missile violates the INF Treaty. The United States and Soviet Union signed the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty in December 1987. Negotiations on this treaty were the result of a “dual-track” decision taken by NATO in 1979. At that time, in response to concerns about the Soviet Union’s deployment of… Continue Reading Russian Compliance with the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty